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London (London English, French Londres) is the capital of England and the United Kingdom. It is the most important political, financial (due to the City of), art and culture of the United Kingdom, and one of the most important cities of the world.
London’s population is 7,421,229 inhabitants (1 January 2005) in Greater London, which add a few million in the metropolitan area. There is a huge diversity of ethnicities, cultures and religions, with London being one of the most cosmopolitan cities in Europe and worldwide. Live here permanently or temporarily, many of the wealthiest people in the world.
In London there are many institutions and corporate headquarters of global importance, many important buildings: palaces, museums, theaters, concert halls, airports, railway stations, numerous embassies and consulates.
Westminster (Palace and Abbey) and Sf.Margareta Church in London was recorded in 1987 on the World Heritage list together
Greater London covers an area of 1579 km ². London Thames port, navigable river. The river had a major influence in developing the city. The town was founded on the north bank, and until the eighteenth century there was only one bridge, London Bridge, which helped the city to develop a lot north of the river. Thames plain was fertile ground for expansion of the city, the few hills (eg Parliament Hill, Primrose Hill) were not significant obstacles.
In past centuries the Thames was much wider and less deep. The extent of the city but was channeled and dammed, and many of its tributaries were completely channeled and now run underground. Tides are felt on the Thames. It is one of the reasons why London is exposed to floods. To protect the city, was built in 1970 in Woolwich, downstream, a lane called the Thames Barrier.
London’s climate is temperate, with warm but rarely hot, and mild winters. Summer temperature rarely exceeds 33 ° C (absolute record being 37.9 ° C, recorded in 2003). Winter snowfall are rare, and the snow usually does not exceed 2 cm. Despite the reputation of the city “rainy”, London receives about 600 mm of precipitation annually, less than, for example, Rome and Sydney. Because the extent of the built environment in London is often a microclimate, where temperatures are about 5 ° C higher than outside, because buildings and concrete retain heat better.
Originally London was a Celtic settlement. In 43 AD Romans founded Londinium town and its name seems to have given the name of the native city, London, although some recent data shows that London could be of Celtic origin. In 61 AD, new Roman city is besieged, looted and burned down to the ground by insurgents Celts led by Queen Boadicea.
After the fall of the Roman Empire, Londinium was abandoned west of it appeared in a seventh century Saxon settlement Lundenwic name on the site today is Aldwych. In the tenth century the old Roman city was reoccupied. Westminster was originally a separate town, but finally London and Westminster were integrated and developed together, becoming the largest city of England and the twelfth century the capital of the kingdom.
Between the sixteenth century and the twentieth century, London flourished, the capital of the British Empire. Great Fire of 1666 destroyed much of the city. Reconstruction lasted over 10 years and was led by Sir Christopher Wren, who, on that occasion, he designed and built many of London’s landmark buildings today, just as for example St. Paul. City growth accelerated in the eighteenth century, so At the beginning of 1800s London was the largest city in the world.
Nazi bombing during the Second World War led, besides the loss of more than 30,000 lives, the destruction of many old buildings. Reconstruction of the following decades gave rise to the use of many modern architectural styles, which sometimes give the city an eclectic character.
London was the target of terrorist attacks by the IRA, and most recently suffered a series of attacks on the transport system, resulting in 52 deaths and assigned Islamist group al-Qaeda.